Kashmir: What is the fact and fiction ?

Posted: November 11, 2011 in Education, Geopolitics, Politics, Uncategorized, Youths and Nation
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Everyone knows the on going crisis of Kashmir. Everyone knows that a problem persists and many have opinions on it accordingly whether it be politicians or our ‘aam janta’, but does every one actually know what the situation of Kashmir is? Does anyone actually know the details of it? This is what I’m going to explain alongside with the incident of the attack on Judge Prashant Bushan in reference of giving his opinion on Kashmir.

Geopolitics and Globalisation : Kashmir As published into library of Texas University website 

Prashant Bhushan,Senas, militants, and RSS.

The whole episode of claims and counter claims of who is right and who is wrong in the episode of beating up of Judge PrashantBhushan and subsequently Anna supporters in Patiala is always missing the main element of the problem, i.e. Kashmir.
Now that RSS and others entered tutoring Anna that they will defend Kashmir no matter what the cost is, a bizarre twist for the problem that is more dynamically geo-political in nature.
In the beating of anyone who express their opinion on any issue (controversial or not) even though it may be contrary to beliefs is out right lawless and tribal in nature. First issue is lawlessness growing and guarded among urban areas in all parties. Second is police helplessness in subsequent bringing quick justice to the victims. The comments of Prashant Bhushan on Kashmir is only a pretext under which this lawlessness came in its most vulgar form.
The attack is inhuman sick and most unwarranted and must be condemned by one and all. Whoever did that –Bhagath Singh Sena, Ram Sena or any other group ticked off with the agitation taking a fancy sena name. Defending such act in the name of defending Kashmir or the sacrifices of either Indians or Kashmiris’ is the bizarre twist to the whole issue. So here we examine the issue of Kashmir itself at first.

The current Kashmir situation.

As of today writing this article more than 2/3 (two thirds) of Kashmir is under occupation either by Pakistan or China and this situation was same since last 6 decades. The whole of Kashmir is only part of India in the maps published by Government of India. No other country in the world out side India publish whole of Kashmir as part of India. So the claims of ‘all the great patriots’ that they defend Kashmir should be examined in the light that why then they never recovered even a single centimeter of land that was lost. Also there is a need to examine the plethora of militias in various combinations of English alphabet popping up and backed either by Pakistanis or their funders like British intelligence or CIA who want to liberate that part of the Indian Kashmir still held by us.
Now that part of the POK (Pak Occupied Kashmir) is leased to China including the Kara Koram Highway for 90 years. According to our Army chief there are close to more than 60000 battles hardened Chinese troops in this area. What all the senas doing or ‘patriots’ doing is a question they only can answer. Second Kashmir ascended to India in 1947 till then it was ruled by Maharaja Gulab singh and their heirs without being occupied even by the British. It remained as independent kingdom for more than 180 years till 1947even before the RSS was born or these senas came in to existence or any Islamic militia was ‘created’. Which is a recent phenomenon since of past 8 decades.

Spiritual twist to Kashmir.

For last two decades there is another weird twist to the Kashmir problem. Dozens of Bible researchers are claiming both Moses (giver of Ten Commandments for both Jews and various denomination Christians) and Jesus did travel to Tibet via Kashmir and on the way back died somewhere in Kashmir valley and these grave(s) are now traced. Some scholars even went on innovatively to claim that Kashmiris are the lost 13th tribe of Israel. So these new facts (if they have any substance) should be suppressed by organized religions as this proof (if exists) go against any thing that is organized religion(s) is all about. So there are reports to indicate that various Church denominations also funding (though covertly) various shades of insurgency to destroy any such evidence (if such is discovered).

Kashmir, when founded first? – Pre partition issues

Maharaja Gulab singh who was a general of Maharaja Ranjit singh found the Kashmir Kingdom at least 180 years ago. This was part of the campaigns of Maharaja Ranjit singh who was the first ever King to subdue entire Afghanistan warring tribes and maintained a stable rule and the first Indo-Russian land trade routes via central Asia were open. During Maharaja Ranjit Singh reign along with Sikh federated states Kashmir was born. At its inception it was close to three times bigger than England itself. Since then it remained independent kingdom. Though British subdued Sikh federated states in a long drawn 50 years battles called Anglo Sikh wars and cut off land route between India and Russia they never disturbed Kashmir. British realized that they cannot pacify Afghan tribes (as they-British-are not Maharaja Ranjit Singh) so they paid protection money to Afghans at Rs 54 lacs so that they will not disturb British territories. Also British left Kashmir as a buffer state between British ruled Indian Dominion and Afghan Tribes. Kashmir entered in to agreement with British under theory of paramountcy and remained free kingdom until 1947. The size of this kingdom was bigger than many Indian states today. When British decided to leave India and partition it (India Partition Bill) none of the kingdoms were part of the division. Only 9 provinces ruled by British (which constitute 51% of land mass of India) were part of India partition bill. The other part of Imperial India (constituting 350 or so odd kingdoms and another 200 or so princely states) comprised 49% of the land mass.
The viceroys were busy (Wavell and Mountbatten) convincing the kingdoms to enter similar agreement as they had with British with either Hindu Dominion (current India) or muslim dominion (current Pakistan). Some agreed, some adapted wait and see attitude and some blatantly refused citing that they are more powerful and rich than either Hindu dominion or muslim dominion which were devoid of any resources (translation plundered by British). Kashmir, Hyderabad, Thiruananthapuram, Mysore, Rajputhana, Maratha Confederacy all expressed the attitude of wait and see or refused to join either Hindu Dominion or Muslim Dominion. They even refused to sign even the basic document called ‘agreement to ascension.’ There are many legal arguments and issues in such ascension which we cannot discuss here and still are in supreme court of India.

British concerns – the 20th century Great Game

One of the primary foreign policy issues of East India Company or later British governments or western Europe for more than 300 years was to cut land route access between Russia and India which is nicely termed in geo-politics as GREAT GAME. Today great game 4 is on. From Kashmir via Gilgit, India connects via land route to Afghanistan and then via Tazakistan or Uzbekistan in to Russian main land. The whole journey takes less than 30 hours if proper bus route is planned. The land access will tremendously improve the trade and other relations between India and other Central Asian countries and Russia which is mutually beneficial both in trade and military co-operation. In the absence of this land route the trade between India and Russia is done via a circuitous sea route stretching more than 10,000 kilometers via Pacific Ocean from the port of Vladivostok. When there is a war then in essential supplies matter Russia cannot help India. During the beginning of 20th century it was as part of this Great Game the British maintained many Afghan tribes paid them annual ransom to see that Russia is blocked from any advances in to either Kashmir or in to India proper. What was achieved by Maharaja Ranjit Singh the subduing of Afghan tribes and opening land route to Russia was undone in a carefully devised international strategy by British.

Kashmir problem- post partition

Kashmir King Maharaja Hari Singh decided to remain independent. This posed a huge problem for British. They feared and reasoned correctly that one day eventually Maharaja Hari singh will join the Hindu dominion of India and thus will provide the needed land access to India to reach Russia. Because British had to leave post partition they will not be able to influence either independent Kashmir policy or the Hindu Dominion policy.
For Indians or Indian politicians whose maximum strategic vision lies in how to hold next election win the time for strategic management or national interests is utmost 5 years. But for British or any western politicians or even corporate, the strategic planning time stretches more than 100 years of their national interests and citizens welfare. For us in India especially the so called leaders national interest means how much we can make in next 5 years –without being caught. 

British foul play

British sensed the danger. So what was called the Great Game 2 started? British requested the loyal Afghan tribesmen to raid MaharajaHari singh territories soon after partition plans were announced. Post announcement the Hindu Dominion (later became Republic of India) and Muslim dominion (later became Islamic Republic of Pakistan) locked horns on how many cars, paper reams, or whistles to divide in what ratio and people were killing each other destroying properties raping and pillaging for next six months. The Afghan tribes started to raid the Kashmiri Kingdom. While most of the Indian or Pakistani troops were busy guarding British petroleum interests in Middle East the killing spree inside what remained India or Pakistan and Kashmir went unabated. (12 million people were uprooted on side of Sindh river, 2 million killed, 75 000 women rapped or killed during 6 months of partition plan announcement. None of the today RSS were ever bothered on what was happening in Kashmir. All are busy to get political mileage from each other in the nascent Republics (Indian and Pakistani) for the upcoming elections. None bothered what happened in Kashmir. When these Afghan irregulars reached Sri Nagar, Maharaja Hari singh ‘said to have sent a request for agreeing to accede to India but with a special status to Kashmir which is guarded by Article 370 of Indian constitution’. This article guarantees many privileges for Kashmir which are so unique and amounts to Independent Country. Few examples are like no Indian citizen can buy any property in Kashmir or even Indian Army to enter Kashmir has to take permission of Kashmiri assembly.
This ‘document’ took some time to reach Delhi mean while again it was claimed that either Nehru or Maharaja Hari singh requested the then formed UN to intervene. UN ordered ceasefire. And by that time Afghan irregulars occupied close to 1/3 (one third) of Kashmir which was handed over to Pakistan, because the Pakistani Military chief was then a British Citizen, and Indian first governor general was Mountbatten post partition.
This became immediately disputed by Nehru from Indian side and Maharaja Hari singh from Kashmir side. This disputed land was termed as Pak Occupied Kashmir or POK. Mysteriously Maharaja Hari singh died. His family fled to Delhi. His son Maharaja Karan Singh joined congress and still hold some position in central government. Now in hind sight is claimed that the document of Maharaja Harisingh was a forgery.
With the document reaching Delhi Indian army reached Sri Nagar and held the ground. It was too late. By the time India intervened the precious and most important portion of Kashmir the Hunza valley and Gilgit region which would have connected India and Russia via land route was permanently lost to eternal litigation and perpetual wars. An LOC was drawn and agreed by UN India Pakistan and Kashmir. Since then many incursions were made to relieve whole of Kashmir from India.


Both India and Pakistan fought many wars direct or indirect or proxy both claiming Kashmir as theirs. A proxy war of decades started arming many various factions of militants who did what can be termed as ‘ethnic cleaning’. Pakistani trained militant groups threatened many Indians to leave valley. At the peak of insurgency close to 5,00,000 refuges moved out of Kashmir and lived near Delhi. A diplomatic war raged all over the world. Even displaced Kashmiris formed their own groups and lobbied many capitals along with India and Pakistan.
Close to 75 000 died since the stale mate began. At least 2000 armed forces would have died and triple number of Pakistanis (whom we call terrorists) died in the ever confusing chess board of Great Game 3-a name given to the original British plan post independence.
In all this mess none from RSS or any senas never went to defend or reclaim any territory of Kashmir. They would have never allowed in to Kashmir first of all as they are Indians who are governed under the provision of Article 370. So many who want to defend Kashmir are fighting to remove this article 370 first.
Even today this stale mate continues.

Current crisis of opinions of PB

Prashant Bhushan comments, irrespective of individual freedom as a Supreme Court lawyer of many years he must have known all the above facts. Thus he would have been cautious in just saying at least in public that Kashmir can just get away with plebiscite. If for the argument one assumes that he does not know any of the back ground then also before making a sweeping comment he should have been cautious. In the same way no one has any blank right in a civilized society to just beat up anyone in the name of emotional upset or patriots. Now RSS or senas have no business in this as the entire issue cannot be solved by these self styled protectors of country.
The whole of Kashmir is only part of India in the maps published by government of India. On ground we do not control not more than half or even less. Pakistan publishes maps showing the POK as part of them. After 1964 Chinese war, Chinese occupied Askai chin region of Kashmir. They show the same as part of their country. It is this false representation that whole Kashmir is part of India and false patriot defense of Kashmir, which can be termed as hypocritical at the best that we are exhibiting. The same trend is continuing in persons of civil societies in just commenting on plebiscite. That is why this emotional response. Unless we start changing our attitude and take historical facts as they are not as they are reported by interested groups the attacks and fake defense of Kashmir continue.
Kashmiris on both sides will continue to suffer with no end to resolution and men women on both sides will keep on dying in either genuine or fake counters or encounters.
As of writing this article it is reported that Arvind Kejariwala was hit with a flying shoe.


by Ms. K. Sai Bhavani,


Research Scholar, Geopolitical and Strategic Security Institute, Hyderabad

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